How to cite this article:
Reddy RT, Kumar VK, Prakash S. Evaluation of Garlic Extract Gel as Local Drug Delivery in the Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis: A Clinical Study. CODS J Dent 2018; 10 (1):1-6.
Objective: Here an attempt is made to assess the clinical benefits of garlic extract gel when used as an adjunct to nonsurgical periodontal therapy.
Materials and methods: A total of 13 patients with periodontitis (AAP criteria) were selected. A split mouth design was used and sites in each patient were allocated into the experimental group and the control group. In the experimental group, sites were treated with scaling and root planing (SRP) + garlic gel. In the control group, sites were treated with SRP alone. Plaque index (PI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were assessed at baseline on 21st day, 30th day, and 90th day.
Results: On intragroup comparison, the reduction in clinical parameters like PI, GI, GBI, and PPD was highly significant in both test and control groups (p ≤ 0.001), whereas CAL showed no significant gain in the control group but highly statistical significant result was seen in the test group. On intergroup comparison, all the clinical parameters like PI and CAL showed statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) improvement the in test group when compared with that of the control group, whereas GI, GBI, and PPD showed statistically high significant (p ≤ 0.001) improvement in subjects with SRP + garlic gel when compared with SRP alone.
Conclusion: These results conclude that garlic gel can be a used as an antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agent in adjunct to SRP. However, further research with larger samples needs to be focused to confirm the use of garlic in clinical practice.
How to cite this article:
Sinha S, Parameswarappa P, Eregowda NI, Kenchappa M, Sasalawad S. Comparative Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Quercetin against Endodontic Pathogens in Primary Molars. CODS J Dent 2018; 10 (1):7-10.
Background: Endodontic irrigants have an important role in endodontic treatment of primary teeth, owing to their complex anatomy. Quercetin is a natural flavonoid that exhibits significant antimicrobial properties.
Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of 0.2% chlorhexidine, 1% (w/v) quercetin, and 2% (w/v) quercetin against endodontic pathogens in primary molars.
Materials and methods: A total of 15 patients of 4–7 years of age with nonvital carious primary molars were selected. A sample from the root canal was obtained using number 15 paper point. Antimicrobial activity was measured using the disk diffusion method, for the following solutions: group I: 0.2% chlorhexidine solution, group II: 1% w/v quercetin solution, and group III: 2% w/v quercetin solution. For each sample, microbial culture was done under the microaerophilic condition. After 24 hours, the maximum inhibition zone was recorded in millimeters.
Results: The highest inhibition was shown by group I, 13.13 ± 0.74, followed by group III, 12.00 ± 0.65, and the lowest in group II, i.e., 8.53 ± 0.63. On comparison between groups, statistically significant difference was noted.
Conclusion: Maximum antimicrobial activity was shown by 0.2% chlorhexidine, followed by 2% quercetin that showed significant antimicrobial activity against endodontic pathogens in primary molars.
Aron AK Vasa,
How to cite this article:
Radhalakshmi J, Vasa AA, Sahana S. Effect of Lemongrass Essential Oil as Aromatherapy Agent on Dental Anxiety in Children: A Cross-sectional Study. CODS J Dent 2018; 10 (1):11-15.
Introduction: Managing dental anxiety in children is one of the most difficult tasks for pediatric dental practitioners. Pure essence of essential oils has been shown to be useful in reducing dental anxiety in adults; this study is an attempt to see their effects on children.
Aim: To explore the effect of lemongrass oil in reducing dental anxiety in children.
Materials and methods: A total of 40 children, aged 8–11 years, attending for their first dental visit, were randomly divided into two groups. This comprised of control and experimental groups conditioned to exposure using a candle warmer with normal water and with lemongrass oil, respectively. Psychometric and objective assessment of anxiety was done using the “Venham\'s picture test” and “pulse oximeter” for both the groups. The pre- and postexposure scores were tabulated and the obtained data were analyzed using the paired t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Results: The postexposure mean scores of Venham\'s picture scale (VPS) and pulse rate were lower in the experimental group. This shows that the lemongrass oil produced significant reduction in anxiety among the subjects.
Conclusion: Aromatherapy using lemongrass oil can be recommended in routine pediatric dentistry practice as an effective means of reducing dental anxiety in children.
Aim: To present a case report of concomitant occurrence of dens invaginatus and talon cusp in a single tooth with clinical management using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).
Background: Developmental dental anomalies are an important category of dental morphogenic variants. Developmental anomalies of the permanent dentition are most frequently encountered in the maxillary lateral incisor. Talon cusp is an additional cusp that projects predominately from the lingual or occasionally from the labial surface of anterior teeth. This accessory crown structure is composed of enamel, dentine, and varying degrees of pulp tissue. Dens invaginatus is defined as a deep surface invagination of the crown or root that is lined by the enamel.
Case description: A 12-year-old female patient reported with complaint of small swelling in the upper front region of gums. Clinical examination revealed presence of the sinus tract with respect to the permanent maxillary left lateral incisor with morphologic alteration with associated talon cusp. Intraoral periapical radiographic and CBCT examination revealed malformation of the root with the enamel-lined tract mesial to and separate from the main root canal. Large periapical radiolucency approximately sized 1–1.5 cm was associated with the tract. Root canal treatment of the main root canal as well as of dens invagination followed by apicectomy and cyst enucleation was done.
Conclusion: Co-occurrence of a talon cusp and double dens invaginatus is an extremely rare developmental dental anomaly. This case report represents a talon cusp with dens invaginatus on the maxillary left lateral incisor with associated cyst. Early identification is needed for prevention of potential problems on the affected or opposing tooth.
Clinical significance: This case report presents a management of unusual clinical case of dens invaginatus and talon cusp associated with periapical cyst because of deep infected dens invaginatus using CBCT examination.
Aim: To present a case of occurrence of type B radix entomolaris in permanent mandibular first molars.
Background: Radix entomolaris is a condition where an extra root is present distolingually to the distal root in the tooth. It can be seen in primary as well as permanent teeth.
Case description: An 8-year-old patient reported with complaint of pain in lower left and right back tooth region since one month. On clinical examination, deep occlusal caries (ICDAS 5) was seen with respect to 36 and 46. On radiographic examination, an extra root was seen along with distal root in left and right mandibular first molar tooth.
Conclusion: Knowledge of dental anomalies is very important from the perspective of pedodontist and endodontist. If any of the anomalies is missed by the clinician, there are high chances of failure of the treatment. Upon caries excavation, pulp was not exposed so indirect pulp capping treatment was done for 36 and 46.
Clinical significance: Radix entomolaris is considered as an important condition from endodontic point of view and for providing good treatment especially in cases of root canal therapy.