Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of three-rooted primary mandibular first molars in children of Davangere, Karnataka, India.
Materials and methods: Children aged 3 to 10 years, who reported to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, during the period of January to December 2014 were included in the study. Intraoral periapical radiographs of bilateral primary mandibular first molars, obtained from 77 patients, were investigated for the presence of an additional root. A total of 154 primary mandibular first molars were examined.
Results: The total occurrence of three rooted primary mandibular first molar among the study subjects was 1.3%. There was noted an equal distribution among boys and girls (1:1). Both the three rooted primary first molar occurred on the right side with no bilateral occurrence noted.
Conclusion: Primary mandibular first molar can display several anatomical variations, most frequently supernumerary root located distolingually. Hence, pedodontists should be alert in the identification of additional roots and to make necessary treatment modifications.
Clinical significance: An awareness and understanding of the presence of additional roots and unusual root canal morphology are essential as it determines the successful outcome of the endodontic treatment.
Finn SB. Morphology of the primary teeth. In: Finn SB et al. Clinical pedodontics. 3rd ed., WB Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 1967.
Wheeler RC. A textbook of dental anatomy and physiology. 4th ed., WB Saunders Co., Philadelphia,1965
Ounsi HF, Debaybo D, Salameh Z, Chebaro A, Bassam H. Endodontic considerations in pediatric dentistry: a clinical perspective. Int Dent SA. 2009;11:40-49.
Cleghorn BM, Boorberg NB, Christie WH. Primary human teeth and their root canal systems. Endod Top 2012;23:6-33.
Fumes AC, Sousa-Neto MD, Leoni GB, Versiani MA, da Silva LA, da Silva RA et al. Root canal morphology of primary molars: a micro-computed tomography study. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2014;15:317-26.
Tu MG, Liu JF, Dai PW, Chen SY, Hsu JT, Huang H. Prevalence of three-rooted primary mandibular first molars in Taiwan. J Formos Med Assoc 2010;109:69-74.
Tratman EK. Three-rooted lower molars in man and their racial distribution. Br Dent J 1938;64:264-74.
Menczer LF. Anomalies of the primary dentition. J Dent Child. 1955;22:57-62.
Curzon ME, Curzon JA. Three-rooted mandibular molars in the Keewatin Eskimo: Its relationship to the prevention and treatment of caries. J Can Dent Assoc 1972;38:152.
Mayhall JT. Three-rooted deciduous mandibular second molars. J Can Dent Assoc. 1981;47:319-321.
Walker RT, Quackenbush LE. Three-rooted lower first permanent molars in Hong Kong Chinese. Br Dent J. 1985;159:298– 299.
Tu MG, Tsai CC, Jou MJ, Chen WL, Chang YF, Chen SY. Prevalence of three-rooted mandibular first molars among Taiwanese individuals. J Endod 2007;33:1163–1166.
Carabelli G. Systematisches Handbuch der Zahnheikunde. 2nd ed. Vol. 114. Vienna: Braumuller and Seidel;1844.
Bolk L. Bemerkungenuber Wurzelvariationen am menschlichenunteren Molaren. Zeiting fur Morphologie Anthropologie 1915;17:605-610.
Nagaveni NB, Poornima P, Valsan A, Mathew MG. Prevalence of three rooted primary mandibular second molars in Karnataka(South India) Population. Int J Pedod Rehabil 2018; 3:33-35.
Falk WV, Bowers DF. Bilateral three rooted mandibular first primary molars: Report of case. J Dent Child. 1983;50:136–137.
Nagaveni NB, Chandani GR, Kothari S, Poornima P. Radix entomolaris in children – A challenge to pedodontist: A report of case series with literature review. Int J Contemp Dent Med Rev.2015;2015.
Nagaveni NB, Bajaj M, Shruthi AS, Poornima P. Radix paramolaris (supernumerary third root) in primary mandibular second molar: Report of two cases. Niger J Exp Clin Biosci 2014;2:134-137.
Gupta S, Nagaveni NB, Chandranee NJ. Three-rooted mandibular first primary molar: Report of three cases. Contemp Clinic Dent. 2012;3:S134-S136.
Ramamurthy N, Srinivasan I. Bilateral three-rooted primary lower molars. Indian J Dent Res 2012;23:700.
Nagaveni NB, Umashankar KV, Radhika NB, Satisha TS. Third root (Radix Entomolaris) in permanent mandibular first molars in pediatric patients – An Endodontic challenge. Journal of Oral Health and Community Dentistry 2011;5:49- 51.
Song JS, Choi HJ, Jung IY, Jung HS, Kim SO. The prevalence and morphologic classification of distolingual roots in the mandibular molars in a Korean population. J Endod 2010;36:653-657.
Nagaveni NB, Umashankara KV. Radix entomolaris and paramolaris in children:A review of the literature. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2012;30:94-102.
Nagaveni NB, Umashankara KV. Radix entomolaris in permanent mandibular first molar: case report and literature review. Gen Dent 2009;57:e25-29.