CODS Journal of Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 8 , ISSUE 2 ( 2016 ) > List of Articles

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Comparison of Diode Laser and Scalpel Techniques in the Treatment of Gingival Melanin Hyperpigmentation

Shobha Prakash, Bharath G Chandra, Narayan N Walavalkar, NC Praveen

Keywords : Gingival depigmentation, Laser, Scalpel

Citation Information : Prakash S, Chandra BG, Walavalkar NN, Praveen N. Comparison of Diode Laser and Scalpel Techniques in the Treatment of Gingival Melanin Hyperpigmentation. CODS J Dent 2016; 8 (2):64-69.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10063-0015

License: CC BY-NC-ND 3.0

Published Online: 00-12-2016

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2016; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Introduction: Although clinical melanin pigmentation does not present itself as a medical problem or a disease entity, “black gums” is a major esthetic complaint for many people, who often request cosmetic corrections. Depigmentation of melanin hyperpigmented gingiva can be carried out using many procedures, of which lasers are a new addition. This study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of conventional scalpel scraping and diode laser for the treatment of gingival melanin hyperpigmentation. Materials and methods: A total of 14 patients in the age group between 15 and 30 years were selected for a randomized split mouth depigmentation procedure using scalpel scraping (group I) and diode laser (group II). Parameters evaluated were recurrence of pigmentation using Dummett index 1964, and plaque index and gingival index at 1 week, and 1, 3, and 6 months. Mann–Whitney U test was used to analyze statistical significance between different variables. Results: There was no statistical significance in plaque and gingival index in both the groups. At 6 months in group I, repigmentation was seen in 10 patients and in group II, repigmentation was seen in 8 patients. Conclusion: Although both treatment modalities are highly effective depigmentation procedures, giving excellent esthetics results, scalpel remains the gold standard because of its convenience and cost-effectiveness. However, by adhering to safety measures, the diode laser can also be used to remove gingival pigmentation efficiently.


PDF Share
  1. Liébart ME, Deruelle CF, Santini A, Dillier FL, Corti VM, Glise JM, Borghetti A. Smile line and periodontium visibility. Perio 2004;1(1):17-25.
  2. Çiçek Y, Ertaş U. The normal and pathological pigmentation of oral mucous membrane: a review. J Contemp Dent Pract 2003 Aug;4(3):76-86.
  3. Dummet CO. Oral pigmentation. J Periodontol 1960 Oct;31(5):356-360. depigmentation by diode laser and cryosurgery
  4. Page LR, Coro RE, Crawford BE, Giansanti JS, Weathers DR. The oral melanotic macule. Oral Sung Oral Med Oral Pathol 1977 Aug;44(2):219-226.
  5. Trelles MA, Verkruysse W, Segui JM, Udaeta A. Treatment of melanotic spots in the gingiva by argon laser. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1993 Jul;51(7):759-761.
  6. Bhardwaj A, Grover HS, Lal S. Gingival depigmentation with scalpel and diode laser. World J Dent 2012 Oct-Dec;3(4): 359-362.
  7. Hegde R, Padhye A, Sumanth S, Jain AS, Thukral N. Comparison of surgical stripping; erbium-doped: yttrium, aluminium and garnet laser; and carbon dioxide laser techniques for gingival depigmentation: a clinical and histologic study. J Periodontol 2013 Jun;84(6):738-748.
  8. Gupta G. Management of gingival hyperpigmentation by semiconductor diode laser. J Cutan Aesthet Surg 2011 Sep- Dec;4(3):208-210.
  9. Lagdive S, Doshi Y, Marawar PP. Management of gingival hyperpigmentation using surgical blade and diode laser therapy: a comparative study. J Oral Laser Appl 2009 Spring; 9(1):41-47.
  10. Dummett CO, Gupta OP. Estimating the epidemiology of oral pigmentation. J Natl Med Assoc 1964 Sep;56(5):419-420.
  11. Silness J, Loe H. Periodontal disease in pregnancy. Acta Odontol Scand 1964 Feb;22:121-135.
  12. Löe H, Silness J. Periodontal disease in pregnancy. Acta Odontol Scand 1963 Dec;21(6):532-551.
  13. Bhusari BM, Kasat S. Comparison between scalpel technique and electrosurgery for depigmentation: a case series. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2011 Oct;15(4):402-405.
  14. Ginwalla TM, Gomes BC, Varma BR. Surgical removal of gingival pigmentation. J Indian Dent Assoc 1966 Jun;38(6): 147-150.
  15. Dummett CO, Bolden TE. Postsurgical clinical repigmentation of the gingivae. J Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1963;16: 353-365.
  16. Singh V, Giliyar SB, Kumar S, Bhat M. Comparative evaluation of gingival depigmentation by diode laser and cryosurgery using tetrafluoroethane (TFE): 18 months follow up. Clin Adv Periodontics 2012 Aug;2(3):129-134.
  17. Nakamura Y, Hossain M, Hirayama K, Matsumoto K. A clinical study on the removal of gingival melanin pigmentation with the CO2 laser. Lasers Surg Med 1999 Aug;25(2): 140-147.
  18. Tal H, Oegiesser D, Tal M. Gingival depigmentation by Erbium: YAG laser: clinical observations and patient responses. J Periodontol 2003 Nov;74(11):1660-1667.
  19. Kumara Ajeya EG, Avinash JL, Rajiv NP, Galgali Sushama R. Split mouth gingival depigmentation using blade and diode laser–a case report. Ann Dent Res 2011 Oct;1(1):91-95.
  20. Perlmutter S, Tal H. Repigmentation of the gingiva following surgical injury. J Periodontol 1986 Jan;57(1):48-50.
  21. Atsawasuwan P, Greethong K, Nimmanon V. Treatment of gingival hyperpigmentation for esthetic purposes by Nd: YAG laser: report of 4 cases. J Periodontol 2000 Feb;71(2): 315-321.
  22. Rosa A, Aranha AC, Eduardo CP, Akira A. Esthetic treatment of gingival melanin hyperpigmentation with Er:YAG laser: short term clinical observation and patient follow-up. J Periodontol 2007 Oct;78(10):2018-2025.
  23. Esen E, Haytac MC, Oz IA, Erdogan O, Karsli ED. Gingival melanin pigmentation and its treatment with CO2 laser. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2004 Nov;98(5):552-527.
  24. Moritz A, Schoop U. Lasers in Endodontics. Oral Laser Application. Berlin: Quintessence, 2006.
  25. Dominic CMU, Ezeabasili ACC, Okoro BU. Industrial noise exposure and its effect on blood pressure in adult industry workers. GJEDT 2014;3(3):29-33.
  26. Mortuaire G, Boute O, Hatron PY, Chevalier D. Pilot study of submucosal radiofrequency for epistaxis in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Rhinology 2013 Dec;51(4):355-360.
  27. Kumar PS, Matthews CR, Joshi V, de Jager M, Aspiras M. Tobacco smoking affects bacterial acquisition and colonization in oral biofilms. Infect Immun 2011 Nov;79(11): 4730-4738.
  28. Namiot Z, Namiot DB, Kemona A, Gołebiewska M, Bucki R. The effect of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption on efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication. Pol Arch Med Wewn 2000 Sep;104(3):569-574.
  29. Linder JA, Sim I. Antibiotic treatment of acute bronchitis in smokers: a systematic review. J Gen Intern Med 2002 Mar;17(3):230-234.
  30. Lee WK, Ramanathan M Jr, Spannhake EW, Lane AP. The cigarette smoke component acrolein inhibits expression of the innate immune components IL-8 and human betadefensin 2 by sinonasal epithelial cells. Am J Rhinol 2007 Nov-Dec;21(6):658-663.
  31. Kamath PM, Shenoy VS, Mittal N, Sharma NK. Microbiological analysis of paranasal sinuses in chronic sinusitis—a south Indian coastal study. Egypt J Ear Nose Throat All Sci 2013 Nov;14(3):185-189.
  32. Bezerra TF, Pádna FG, Ogawa AI, Gebrim EM, Saldiva PH, Voegels RL. Biofilms in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps: pilot study. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2009 Nov- Dec;75(6):788-793.
  33. Hashemi M, Sadeghi MMM, Omrani MR, Torabi MA. Microbiology and antimicrobial resistance in chronic resistant rhino sinusitis with or without polyp after functional endoscopic sinus surgery. J Res Med Sci 2005;10(3):167-171.
  34. Farahani F, Youse Mashouf R, Hashemian F, Esmaeili R. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of aerobic organisms in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis in Hamadan, Iran. Avicenna J Clin Microb Infec 2014 Aug;1(2):e18961..
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.