Oral mucositis is a frequent adverse reaction of radiation therapy of head and neck malignancies. The incidence and severity of these sequelae of radiation have increased with the use of altered fractionated schedules and concurrent chemotherapy. Mucositis may confine the patient's tolerance of antineoplastic therapy, and the nutritional status is endangered. Thus, the cancer treatment may be dramatically affected along with the patient's quality of life. In order to prevent and treat this condition many treatment options are available, but the complete, effective prevention and therapy cannot be achieved. Research leading to a better understanding of the mechanisms of mucosal injury will ideally result in more specific, more targeted, and effective strategies for prevention of mucositis rather than current management algorithms that rely primarily on costly symptom management.
Mucositis incidence, severity and associated outcomes in patients with head and neck cancer receiving radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy: A systematic literature review. Cancer 2008; 113:2704-13.
Review article: oral and intestinal mucositis—causes and possible treatments. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003;18:853-874
Oral mucositis and the clinical and economic ourcomes of hematopoietic stem-cell transplantaion. J Clin Oncol 2001; 19:2201-2205.
Perspectives on cancer therapy-induced mucosal injury: pathogenesis, measurement, epidemiology, and consequences for patients. Cancer 2004;100(9 suppl):1995-2025.
Risk factors for ulcerative oral mucositis in cancer patients: unanswered questions. Oral Oncol 2003; 39:91-100.
Scope and epidemiology of cancer therapy-induced oral and gastrointestinal mucositis. Semin Oncol Nurs 2004; 20:3-10.
Assessment and measurement of oral mucositis. Semin Oncol Nurs 2004;20:22-29.
Patologie orali nel trapianto autologo di midollo óseo (ABMT). Minerva Stomatol 1994;43:7-15.
Quality of life in adult cancer patients treated with bone marrow transplantation (a review of the literature). Eur J Cancer 1995;31:163-73.
A comparison of mouthrinses containing two concentrations of chlorhexidine. Journal of Periodontal Research Supplement 1986:p. 23-32.
Prophylaxis of candidiasis in patients with leukemia and bone marrow transplants. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radio! Endod 1996;81:291-6
Comparative staining in vitro and plaque inhibitory properties in vivo of 0.12% and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinses. J Clin Periodontol 1995;22:613-7.
Oral care of the patient receiving chemotherapy. In: Ord R, Blanchaert R. Oral Cancer. Carol Stream, Illinois: Quintessence Publishing, 2000, p.133-47.
Semin Oncol 1996;23:2-16.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2000; 46:1105-1108.
Support Care Cancer 1998;6:155-160.
Cancer 115:3699-3708, 2009
Stem Cells 1996;14:452-459.
Clin Cancer Res 1999; 5:1363-1368.
J Immunother 2001;24:384-388.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002;54:245-251.
N Engl J Med 2004;351:2590-2598
J Exp Med Sci 1992;175:1717-1728.
Bone Marrow Transplant 1995; 15:949-954.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2000;46:525-534.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1998; 42:551-556.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1998;41:747-754.
Adv Exp Med Biol 1997;400B:811-818.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg 1988;16: 371-374.
Prophylaxis of oral mucositis associated with chemoradiotherapy for oral carcinoma by azelastine hydrochloride with other antioxidants. Head Neck 1994;16:331-9.
Glutamine prevents cytokine-induced apoptosis in human colonic epithelial cells. J Nutr 2003;133:3065-71.
Effects of preformed proline and proline amino acid precursors (including glutamine) on collagen synthesis in human fibroblast cultures. Biochim Biophys Acta 1987;930:39-47.
A Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of Saforis for prevention and treatment of oral mucositis in breast cancer patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Cancer 2007;109:322-31.
Standardized parenteral alanyl-glutamine dipeptide supplementation is not beneficial in autologous transplant patients: A randomized, doubleblind, placebo controlled study. Bone Marrow Transplant 2002;30:953-61.
J Clin Oncol 1994;12:2630-2633.
Br J Cancer 1974;74:312-317.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2001;50:343-352.
Proc ASCO 2002;21:228a, (abstr)
Inhibition of fluorouracil-induced stomatitis by oral cryotherapy. J Clin Oncol 1991;9:449-52.
Oral cooling (cryotherapy), an effective treatment for the prevention of 5-fluorouracil-induced stomatitis. Eur J Cancer B Oral Oncol 1994;30B:234-6.
A multicenter phase III randomized study in patients with head and neck cancer. Support Care Cancer 1999; 7:244-252
Cancer Treatment-induced Oral Mucositis (Review). Anticancer research 2007; 27: 1105-1126.
The efficacy of sucralfate suspension in the prevention of oral mucositis due to radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1994;28:693-8.
Sucralfate mouth washing in the prevention of radiation-induced mucositis: a placebo-controlled double-blind randomized study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1994;30:177-82.
Sucralfate for radiation mucositis: results Treatment Of Radiation Mucositis of a double-blind randomized trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1997;37:275-9.
Phase III controlled evaluation of sucralfate to alleviate stomatitis in patients recervmg fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 1997; 15:1235-8.
The modifying effect of beta-carotene on radiation and radiotherapy and chemotherapy induced oral mucositis. Br J Cancer 1988;57:416-7