Aim and objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 1% (w/v) chitosan gel as an active agent, on periodontopathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Tannerella forsythia.Materials and methods: One percent chitosan gel was tested for its antimicrobial activity against four periodontopathogens, P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, F. nucleatum, and T. forsythia by using a disk diffusion test. Results: The effectiveness of chitosan gel can be measured using its zone of inhibition. Chitosan gel showed the maximum zone of inhibition against F. nucleatum. It also produced a wide ring of no bacterial growth where P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, and T. forsythia were inoculated. Conclusion: In this study, it has been demonstrated that chitosan gel is effective against the periopathogens tested, thereby highlighting its potential to be used in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Clinical significance: Chitosan gel shows promise in vitro, by producing a wide zone of no bacterial growth. Therefore, it can be used in the treatment of chronic periodontitis, clinically.
Cohen R, Mariotti A, Rethman M, et al. Glossary of Periodontal Terms. 4th ed., Chicago: American Academy of Periodontology; 2001. p. 40.
Socransky SS, Haffajee AD. The bacterial etiology of destructive periodontal diseases: current concepts. J Periodontol 1992;63(4s):322–331. DOI: 10.1902/jop.1992.63.4s.322.
da Rocha Júnior HA, Silva C, Santiago F, et al. Local drug delivery systems in the treatment of periodontitis: a literature review. J Int Acad Periodontol 2015;17(3):82–90.
Greenstein G. Local drug delivery in the treatment of periodontal diseases: assessing the clinical significance of the results. J Periodontol 2006;77(4):565–578. DOI: 10.1902/jop.2006.050140.
Kavitha K, Keerthi TS, Mani TT. Chitosan polymer used as carrier in various pharmaceutical formulations: brief review. Int J Appl Biol Pharmaceut Technol 2011;2(2):249–258.
Chandy T, Sharma CP, 1995. Resorbable chitosan matrix-a promising biomaterials for the future. Biomed. Engg. Conf., Proc. of the Fourteenth Southern, pp: 282-285. New York: IEEE.
Cheung RC, Ng TB, Wong JH, et al. Chitosan: an update on potential biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Mar Drugs 2015;13(8):5156–5186. DOI: 10.3390/md13085156.
Elieh-Ali-Komi D, Hamblin MR. Chitin and chitosan: production and application of versatile biomedical nanomaterials. Int J Adv Res 2016;4(3):411.
Goy RC, Britto DD, Assis OB. A review of the antimicrobial activity of chitosan. Polímeros 2009;19(3):241–247. DOI: 10.1590/S0104-14282009000300013.
Kmiec M, Pighinelli L, Tedesco MF, et al. Chitosan-properties and applications in dentistry. Adv Tissue Eng Regen Med Open Access 2017;2(4):00035.
Ikinci G, Senel S, Akincibay H, et al. Effect of chitosan on a periodontal pathogen porphyromonas gingivalis. Int J Pharmaceut 2002;235(1-2):121–127. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-5173(01)00974-7.
Akincibay H, Senel S, Ay ZY. Application of chitosan gel in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. J Biomed Mat Res Part B: Appl Biomater 2007;80(2):290–296. DOI: 10.1002/jbm.b.30596.
Isenberg HD. Clinical microbiology procedures handbook, vol. 1, Washington D.C: American Society for Microbiology; 1992.
Babrawala IS, Prabhuji ML, Karthikeyan BV, et al. A novel approach using natural 1%(W/W) chitosan as a local drug delivery system in the management of non-surgical periodontal treatment: a pilot study. J Int Acad Periodontol 2016;18(4):129–133.
Raafat D, Sahl HG. Chitosan and its antimicrobial potential–a critical literature survey. Microb Biotechnol 2009;2(2):186–201. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-7915.2008.00080.x.
Asiri AM, Mohammad A. Applications of nanocomposite materials in drug delivery. Woodhead Publishing; 2018.
Hudzicki J, Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility test protocol. 8th December 2009.
Jiang L, Wang F, Han F, et al. Evaluation of diffusion and dilution methods to determine the antimicrobial activity of water-soluble chitosan derivatives. J Appl Microbiol 2013;114(4):956–963. DOI: 10.1111/jam.12111.
Fontana CR, dos Santos Junior DS, Bosco JM, et al. Evaluation of chitosan gel as antibiotic and photosensitizer delivery. Drug Deliv 2008;15(7):417–422. DOI: 10.1080/10717540802007433.
Slots J, Ting M. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in human periodontal disease: occurrence and treatment. Periodontol 2000 1999;20(1):82–121. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0757.1999.tb00159.x.