CODS Journal of Dentistry
Volume 11 | Issue 2 | Year 2019

Evaluation of the Shear Bond Strength of Methacrylate-based Composite, Resin-modified Glass Ionomer Cement, and Fuji IX Glass Ionomer Cement with Biodentine as a Base

Priya Meharwade1, Poornima Parameshwarappa2, Mallikarjun Kenchappa3, NB Nagaveni4, Bharath Kashetty5

1Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, KLE Vishwanath Katti Institute of Dental Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka, India
2,4,5Department of Pedodontics, College of Dental Sciences, Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Davangere, Karnataka, India
3Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Hitkarinia Dental College and Hospital, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India

Corresponding Author: Priya Meharwade, Department of Pedodontics, College of Dental Sciences, Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Davangere, Karnataka, India, Phone: +91 9743312079, e-mail: priyameharwade@gmail.com

How to cite this article Meharwade P, Parameshwarappa P, Kenchappa M, et al. Evaluation of the Shear Bond Strength of Methacrylate-based Composite, Resin-modified Glass Ionomer Cement, and Fuji IX Glass Ionomer Cement with Biodentine as a Base. CODS J Dent 2019;11(2):40–43.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


Introduction: A material which is used as a base must have an adequate seal, be able to prevent leakage, and remain in place under dislodging forces, such as chewing pressure and also having adhesive properties to restorative materials and to the dentine. Hence, it is important to know the bond strength in clinical practice.

Aim and objective: The aim and objective of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of the glass ionomer cement (GIC) and resin composite with Biodentine as a base.

Materials and methods: Acrylic blocks with a central hole measuring 2 mm in depth and 5 mm in diameter were prepared. A total of 30 samples were prepared, the holes were then filled with Biodentine and the samples were randomly divided into 3 subgroups consisting 10 specimens each: group I: methacrylate-based (MB) composite, group II: Fuji type II resin-modified GIC (RMGIC), and group III: Fuji type IX GIC. For the SBS test, each block was secured in a universal testing machine and the values were compared by using one-way analysis of variance.

Results: Highest bond strength of 1.495 ± 0.05 MPa was observed in group I (i.e., MB composite), followed by group II with 1.139 ± 0.02 MPa (i.e., type II RMGIC), and the lowest bond strength of 0.80 ± 0.05 MPa observed in group III (i.e., Fuji IX GIC).

Conclusion: The adhesion of Biodentine to MB composite surface appears to be greater compared to that of RMGIC and GIC.

Keywords: Biodentine, Composite, Glass ionomer cement, Resin-modified GIC, Shear bond strength.


Regeneration is the new treatment strategy in the fields of pediatric endodontics for preservation and protection of the dental pulp.1 The shortcomings associated with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has led to the development of various new calcium silicate-based materials. One such material is Biodentine (Septodont, France); designed as a dentine substitute for resin composite restorations, pulp capping, and endodontic repair material. It consists of tricalcium silicate, calcium carbonate, zirconium oxide, and a water-based liquid containing calcium chloride as the setting accelerator and water-reducing agent. It has a good sealing ability, high compressive strength, short setting time, greater biocompatibility, bioactivity, and biomineralization properties.2

Resin composites and glass ionomer cements (GICs) are very popular in restorative dentistry because of their esthetic qualities. But they cannot be placed directly over freshly mixed MTA because they can affect its setting, and the etching and rinsing of the unset MTA may dislodge the MTA. However, the setting time of Biodentine is 12 minutes, the resin composites and GICs can be layered over set Biodentine after 12 minutes, which might enable single-visit procedures. Therefore, it is important to identify materials that are compatible in relation to the interface between the two different materials.3

Any material which is used as a base or cavity liners, are described as materials that are used as a layer to seal the dentin floor from the invasion of bacteria and irritants as well as for thermal insulation. These materials should possess an adequate seal, prevent leakage, and remain intact under dislodging forces like masticatory pressure and also be adhesive to the dentine.4 But the strength with which restorative materials bond to Biodentine is unclear. The longevity of adhesive restorations depends on the bond strength between the restoration and the base. Therefore, it is important to know the bond strength of various available restorative materials with Biodentine as a substitute and repair material.5 Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of methacrylate-based (MB) composite, resin-modified GIC (RMGIC), and Fuji IX GIC when used with Biodentine.


This in vitro study was conducted in the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere, Karnataka, India. Following were the materials used in the study: Biodentine (Septodont, France), GIC (GC Fuji IX, GC, Tokyo, Japan), RMGIC (Fuji type IX), and MB composite resin.

Specimen Preparation

Acrylic blocks were prepared with a central hole measuring 2 mm in height and 5 mm in diameter. The standardization of the central holes was carried out with the help of a 5-mm diameter bur and 2 mm was marked on it. In all 30 samples, the holes were fully filled with Biodentine. All the specimens filled with Biodentine were allowed to completely set.

Placement of Restorative Materials

After the setting, Biodentine samples were divided into 3 subgroups of 10 specimens each:

  • Group I: Methacrylate-based composite.
  • Group II: RMGIC (Fuji type II).
  • Group III: Fuji type IX GIC.

Each material was mixed according to the manufacturer’s instructions and was placed at the center of the Biodentine surface by packing the material into plastic tubes with an internal diameter of 4 mm and a height of 4 mm. For group I, etching of the Biodentine surface was performed with 37% phosphoric acid gel for 15 seconds, rinsed for 20 seconds and then gently blown, and application of a total etch adhesive system was performed according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The composite resin was packed directly against Biodentine surface through the plastic tube using plastic instrument, adapted in two increments. Each increment of 2 mm thickness was light polymerized for 40 seconds at 400 mW/cm2 using a Quartz-Tungsten-Halogen (QTH) light curing unit. To standardize the curing distance, the tip of the polymerization unit was placed in contact with the surface of the plastic tube. Then, the plastic tube was removed and the tested material polymerized for 10 seconds at four points all around to ensure that there was complete polymerization. For group II, the same procedure was performed except that the placement of cement was performed by injecting the material in the plastic tube without the application of adhesive material. For group III, restorative GIC mixed according to the manufacturer’s instructions and applied over the Biodentine surface through the plastic tube and allowed to set for 10 minutes within the plastic tube. Then, the plastic tube was removed carefully. All the samples were stored at 37°C and 100% humidity for 24 hours to encourage setting. All samples were prepared by the same operator.2

Fig. 1: Specimen prepared for one of the groups—Group III (type IX GIC)

Shear Bond Strength Test

Each block was secured in a universal testing machine. A chisel-edge plunger was mounted onto the movable crosshead of the testing machine with speed of 0.5 mm/minute and positioned in such a way that the leading edge was aimed at the Biodentine/adhesive interface. The force required to remove the restorative material was measured in kilograms. The means and standard deviations were calculated. The mean bond strengths of the groups were compared by using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (Figs 1 and 2).


Based on the data collected, mean and standard deviation of bond strengths of three groups in the study were as follows. Highest bond strength of 1.495 ± 0.05 MPa was observed in group I (i.e., MB composite), followed by group II with 1.139 ± 0.02 MPa (i.e., RMGIC type II), and the lowest bond strength of 0.80 ± 0.05 MPa observed in group III (Fuji IX GIC) (Table 1).

Observation showed that the significant value (p value) of F-statistic is *0.000 < 0.05 (i.e., at 5% level of significance/95% confidence level of the test). This implies that the three groups under study statistically differ significantly in their respective bond strengths.

Furthermore, the difference between groups w.r.t. bond strength taken two groups at a time was performed using Tukey’s post hoc test. The outcomes are shown in Table 2. Here, also the significant value (p value) of F-statistic is 0.000 < 0.05 in each set of comparison for mean bond strength between two groups under study. Thus, the three groups under consideration are three distinct groups with significantly different bond strengths with highest bond strength being observed in group I, i.e., Biodentine samples with MB composite (Table 2).


In restorative treatments involving the exposure of pulp, since clinical findings and histological events do not often coincide, prediction of severity and type of the pulpal damage are almost impossible. Thus, the clinician should make every effort to protect the pulp vitality. Treatment modalities like pulp capping aim to preserve pulp vitality by elimination of caries (bacteria) and using biocompatible products to provide a strong barrier against the bacterial microleakage.1 Calcium hydroxide is the popular pulp-capping agent. However, other biocompatible materials, such as mineral trioxide aggregate, calcium-enriched cement, and Biodentine, have gained popularity recently.6 After pulp capping, the tooth requires a proper final restoration and most often composite is the first choice especially in the esthetic zone. Whereas, cases in which lack enough enamel preparation, RMGIC can be a good alternative restorative material. In such restorations, the bond between pulp-capping agents and composite resin or RMGIC plays a crucial role in the sealing provided by the restoration and finally leads to the success of the treatment.7 Therefore, the bond strengths of composite, RMGIC, and GIC to Biodentine surface were evaluated in the current study.

Fig. 2: Measurement of shear bond strength with universal testing machine

Table 1: Mean shear bond strength of different materials with Biodentine
NMeanStd. deviation
MB composite101.49540.05918
Table 2: Comparison of shear bond strength of different materials with Biodentine
(I) Material(J) MaterialMean difference (I–J)Std. errorSig.*
MB compositeGIC0.35570*0.021540.000
GICMB composite−0.35570*0.021540.000
RMGICMB composite−0.68905*0.021540.000

* 0.000 < 0.05 (i.e., @ 5% level of significance/95% confidence level of the test)

Different mechanical tests have been used to assess the bonding performance of restorative materials. Although with its drawbacks, shear testing has been widely used to evaluate the bonding ability of adhesive materials to dental structure. This method is easier to perform than the microtensile method. Especially in regards to GICs, which present low bond strength, other tests may be difficult to apply.8

There was a significant difference between bond strengths of the composite resin, RMGIC, and GIC groups. According to the results, the bond strength of composite to Biodentine was higher followed by RMGIC and least with GIC. The higher bond strength to composite may be because the 37% phosphoric acid removes the smear layer and leading to a clean surface which in turn increases the micromechanical bond, hence high bond strength.9

In RMGIC samples, no significant difference was observed among the SBSs of substrate. This may be because the bond between RMGIC and the substrate must be mostly chemical and micromechanical having less effect. This hypothesis is supported by a study performed by Ajami et al.,3 where the type of the failure seen is mostly of the adhesive type. Thus, we can conclude that the bond strength between RMGIC and substrate was lower than the cohesive strength. However, the current study did not attempt to check the cohesive strength of the materials independently, and therefore, further studies on the difference of cohesive strength are recommended.3

It was reported that etch-and-rinse adhesives can increase the SBS of composites to MTA. Odabaş et al. evaluated the SBS of composite to Biodentine after two time intervals (i.e., 12 minutes and 24 hours) and other results showed that the SBS value increased for the 24-hour period.10 Bachoo et al. reported that the initial setting reaction of Biodentine takes approximately 12 minutes after mixing the powder and the liquid. However, it takes up to 2 weeks to achieve complete maturation of Biodentine.11 For this reason, in the current study, Biodentine specimens were stored for 24 hours at 100% humidity to allow complete hardening of the materials.

Another contributing factor for the low bond strength value is lack of pressure during placement of the self-adhesive resin cement. Application of pressure during cement placement is necessary to avoid bubbles and open spaces on the interface, and may affect the longevity of the self-adhesive resin cement.5

Not much information is available in the literature about the bond strength of Biodentine to restorative materials. Ajami et al. evaluated the SBS of RMGIC to calcium enriched mixture (CEM) was 2.69 MPa.3 Altunsoy et al. evaluated the SBS of X-tra base with Futurabond DC to MTA was 1.8 MPa.12 In the current study, SBS of MB composite to Biodentine was 1.49 MPa, which is much lower than the value of previous studies.

Similar results to our current study were observed by Chitnis et al., who compared the bond strength between GIC, polyacid modified composite resin (PMCR), and resin-based composite and found that resin-based composite had significantly higher shear bond values than the other materials.13 In contrast to our current study, Prabhakar et al. observed that RMGIC exhibited higher bond values when compared to PMCR and resin-based composite.14 While Almuammar et al. observed that PMCR had higher shear bond than GIC and RMGIC, but less than resin-based composites.15

In the previous studies, approximately half of the specimens exhibited adhesive failure, and the remaining half of the specimens exhibited cohesive failure in the pulp-capping materials.16 However, in the current study, specimens showed cohesive or mixed failure and the failures occurred within the layer of Biodentine and adhesive failure did not occur. This finding does not necessarily reflect the true interfacial bond strength between the adhesive resin and the pulp-capping material. However, it can be said that calcium silicate-based materials used in the current study may present higher SBS to composite, RMGIC, and GIC if cohesive failure would not occur. It is reported that the bond is acceptable when fracture occurs inside each material rather than in the bonded interface (i.e., cohesive rather than adhesive).

Another important point to be noted is that the materials were not tested immediately after their initial setting, which is the real clinical scenario. Here, the samples were stored without any load up to 24 hours before loading, which may have influenced the results.12 It should also to be kept in mind that the current study was performed using only one setting time.

Thus, the drawbacks of this study on the basis of the methodology are that we have used only one setting time for the SBS evaluation, and the adhesive systems have different setting times, and we did not consider alternative bonding systems, and the study was designed as an in vitro evaluation. Future studies are needed to investigate the effects of different bonding protocols on the surface and structural characteristics of Biodentine to provide an insight into the adhesive mechanisms of the different bonding systems and Biodentine.


Within the limitations of the current study, it was concluded that the bonding of composite to Biodentine appears superior when compared to RMGIC and type IX GIC. However, only initial setting time was taken in the study and further studies are recommended before considering for clinical use.


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