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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Priyanka Shivanand, Kangowkar V Vandana, Kharidhi L Vandana, Shobha Prakash

Evaluation of Curcumin 10 mg (Curenext®) as Local Drug Delivery Adjunct in the Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis: A Clinical Trial

[Year:2016] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:2] [Pages:67] [Pages No:59-63][No of Hits : 346]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Plaque control combined with scaling and root planing (SRP) is an effective therapeutic modality for arresting periodontitis. Due to limitation of mechanical therapy such as SRP, local application of drugs has been initiated. Turmeric is not just a remedy, it is the “cure.”

Materials and methods: A total of 14 patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis were included in a split mouth study. Using the split study protocol, upper arch received SRP alone (control group) and lower arch received SRP + intrapocket application of curcumin (CU) 10 mg (Curenext®; experimental group) in selected sites. Plaque index (PI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were assessed at baseline and 21st, 30th, and 90th day.

Results: Intragroup analysis and intergroup analysis showed significant reduction (p < 0.000) in clinical analysis from baseline to 90th day with comparatively better outcomes in the SRP + CU group. No adverse effects were reported.

Conclusion: Curcumin has a number of medicinal properties; it is beneficial in many ways and acts as a capable adjunct to SRP in the treatment of periodontal disease.

Keywords: Curcumin, Local drug delivery, Periodontitis, Scaling and root planing.

How to cite this article: Shivanand P, Vandana KV, Vandana KL, Prakash S. Evaluation of Curcumin 10 mg (Curenext®) as Local Drug Delivery Adjunct in the Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis: A Clinical Trial. CODS J Dent 2016;8(2):59-63.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Shaima Muneer, Kharidhi L Vandana

Effect of Different Occlusal Loads on Periodontium: A Three-dimensional Finite Element Analysis

[Year:2016] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:2] [Pages:67] [Pages No:78-90][No of Hits : 317]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: The periodontal tissue reaction to variations in occlusal forces has been described in the literature where in clinical and histologic changes are discussed that produced due to stresses in the periodontal structures. Unfortunately, these stresses are not quantified.

Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the stress produced on various periodontal tissues at different occlusal loads using finite element model (FEM) study.

Materials and methods: Four FEMs of maxillary incisor were designed consisting of the tooth, pulp, periodontal ligament (PDL), and alveolar bone at the various levels of bone height (25, 50, and 75%). Different occlusal loads (5, 15, 24, and 29 kg) at an angle of 50° to the long axis of the tooth were applied on the palatal surface at the level of middle third of the crown. All the models were assumed to be isotropic, linear, and elastic, and the analysis was performed on a Pentium IV processor computer using ANSYS software.

Results: At normofunction load, the stresses were maximum on the mesial side near the cervical region at point D for tooth (-10.93 MPa), for PDL (-4.06 MPa), for bone (-4.3 MPa); with normal bone levels, as the bone levels decreased the stresses increased and the stresses tend to concentrate at the apical region. At any given point, the stresses were increased by 60 and 90% at hyperfunctional loads of 24 and 29 kg respectively, and with hypofunctional load of 5 kg, stresses were reduced by 60%.

Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study, there is reasonably good attempt to express numerical data of stress to be given normal occlusal and hyperfunctional loads to simulate clinical occlusal situations which are known to be responsible for healthy and diseased periodontium.

Keywords: Finite element analysis, Hyperfunctional load, Hypofunctional load, Stress, Trauma from occlusion.

How to cite this article: Muneer S, Vandana KL. Effect of Different Occlusal Loads on Periodontium: A Three-dimensional Finite Element Analysis. CODS J Dent 2016;8(2):78-90.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
REVIEW ARTICLE
Kharidhi L Vandana, Pragya Goswami

Gingival Thickness: Critical Clinical Dimension of Periodontium

[Year:2016] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:2] [Pages:67] [Pages No:108-120][No of Hits : 307]


ABSTRACT

Clinical appearance of normal gingival tissue in part reflects the underlying structure of epithelium and lamina propria. It has been described that particular shape, topographical distribution, and width of gingival are clearly functions of presence and position of erupted teeth. Moreover, tooth shape seems to have an important impact on the clinical features of surrounding gingiva and probably also underlying tooth-supporting periodontal tissue. The thickness of masticatory mucosa was studied in a descriptive manner by conventional histology on cadaver jaws. Others assessed the mucosal thickness in edentulous patients using invasive method of injection needle, macroscopic measurement of histologic sections, a graduated periodontal probe or cephalometric radiographs. Noninvasive methods were performed with ultrasonic devices. A-mode ultrasonic device was used to measure tissue thickness in edentulous patients. B-mode was used to visualize soft and hard tissue relationships while also measuring soft tissue thickness. Among the various macroscopic features of gingiva, the gingival thickness (GT) is least discussed and not mentioned in the standard textbooks and journals. There are few terminologies which are not well defined in periodontal literature like periodontal phenotype, gingival phenotype, gingival architecture, gingival morphology, and GT; hence, this review article will put some light on these terminologies and literature review related to the clinical importance and relevance on masticatory mucosa thickness, chiefly on palatal mucosa and gingiva.

Keywords: Gingiva, Gingival thickness, Mucosal thickness, Peri-implant mucosa.

How to cite this article: Vandana KL, Goswami P. Gingival Thickness: Critical Clinical Dimension of Periodontium. CODS J Dent 2016;8(2):108-120.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
NB Nagaveni, Md Muzammil Khan, P Poornima

Comparative Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Chlorhexidine and Herbal Root Canal Irrigant Aloe vera against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro Study

[Year:2016] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:2] [Pages:67] [Pages No:70-73][No of Hits : 302]


ABSTRACT

Root canal therapy provides appropriate environment for tissue healing by complete elimination of microorganisms from the root canal. The most commonly found bacteria in failed root canal is Enterococcus faecalis. Cleaning and shaping of canals along with chemical disinfection results in elimination of microorganism. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the use of herbs in endodontics as root canal irrigants. This study is designed to explore the antimicrobial efficacy of different concentrations of chlorhexidine (CHX) and Aloe vera extracts as a root canal irrigant against E. faecalis using agar diffusion method.

Keywords: Aloe vera, Antimicrobial, Chlorhexidine, Herbal, Root canal irrigants.

How to cite this article: Nagaveni NB, Khan MM, Poornima P. Comparative Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Chlorhexidine and Herbal Root Canal Irrigant Aloe vera against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro Study. CODS J Dent 2016;8(2):70-73.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Bharath G Chandra, Narayan N Walavalkar, Shobha Prakash, NC Praveen

Comparison of Diode Laser and Scalpel Techniques in the Treatment of Gingival Melanin Hyperpigmentation

[Year:2016] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:2] [Pages:67] [Pages No:64-69][No of Hits : 202]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Although clinical melanin pigmentation does not present itself as a medical problem or a disease entity, “black gums” is a major esthetic complaint for many people, who often request cosmetic corrections. Depigmentation of melanin hyperpigmented gingiva can be carried out using many procedures, of which lasers are a new addition. This study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of conventional scalpel scraping and diode laser for the treatment of gingival melanin hyperpigmentation.

Materials and methods: A total of 14 patients in the age group between 15 and 30 years were selected for a randomized split mouth depigmentation procedure using scalpel scraping (group I) and diode laser (group II). Parameters evaluated were recurrence of pigmentation using Dummett index 1964, and plaque index and gingival index at 1 week, and 1, 3, and 6 months. Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze statistical significance between different variables.

Results: There was no statistical significance in plaque and gingival index in both the groups. At 6 months in group I, repigmentation was seen in 10 patients and in group II, repigmentation was seen in 8 patients.

Conclusion: Although both treatment modalities are highly effective depigmentation procedures, giving excellent esthetics results, scalpel remains the gold standard because of its convenience and cost-effectiveness. However, by adhering to safety measures, the diode laser can also be used to remove gingival pigmentation efficiently.

Keywords: Gingival depigmentation, Laser, Scalpel.

How to cite this article: Chandra BG, Walavalkar NN, Prakash S, Praveen NC. Comparison of Diode Laser and Scalpel Techniques in the Treatment of Gingival Melanin Hyperpigmentation. CODS J Dent 2016;8(2):64-69.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Vasundhara Shivanna, Sharil Pottanchaliyil

Microhardness Test to evaluate the Effect of Chelating Agents on the Superficial Layer of Root Canal Lumen Dentin

[Year:2016] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:2] [Pages:67] [Pages No:104-107][No of Hits : 202]


ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different chelating agents on the microhardness of the most superficial layer of root canal lumen dentin.

Materials and methods: Forty-two extracted single-rooted teeth were instrumented, and the roots were longitudinally sectioned in a buccolingual direction to expose the entire root canal extension. The specimens were distributed into five groups according to the different chelating agents used: 15% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution, 15% EDTA gel, 10% citric acid, 5% malic acid, and control [no irrigation (n=2)]. A standard volume of 50 μL of each chelating agent was used for 5 minutes. Dentin microhardness was measured with a Vickers indenter under a 50 gm load and a 15 second dwell time. Data were analyzed statistically by one-way analysis of variance and post hoc multiple comparison test at 5% significance level.

Results: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution, EDTA gel, and citric acid had the greatest overall effect causing decrease in dentin microhardness without a significant difference (p>0.05) from each other. However, these chelating agents differed significantly with malic acid (p<0.05).

Conclusion: All tested chelating solutions reduced microhardness of the most superficial root canal dentin layer. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and citric acid were the most efficient.

Keywords: Chelators, Dentin microhardness, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Irrigants.

How to cite this article: Shivanna V, Pottanchaliyil S. Microhardness Test to evaluate the Effect of Chelating Agents on the Superficial Layer of Root Canal Lumen Dentin. CODS J Dent 2016;8(2):104-107.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
CASE REPORT
NB Nagaveni, P Poornima, Anila Valsan, Mebin G Mathew

Idiopathic Congenital Agenesis of Primary Teeth: A Report of Two Cases with Review of Literature

[Year:2016] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:2] [Pages:67] [Pages No:101-126][No of Hits : 192]


ABSTRACT

Nonsyndromic idiopathic agenesis of primary teeth is a rare finding. Clinician’s sound knowledge and preparedness for the early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important to prevent consequences of esthetic and functional problems in children with congenitally absent primary teeth. This article reports two such cases of missing primary teeth in children of Asian origin.

Keywords: Congenital absence, Hypodontia, Oligodontia, Primary teeth.

How to cite this article: Nagaveni NB, Poornima P, Valsan A, Mathew MG. Idiopathic Congenital Agenesis of Primary Teeth: A Report of Two Cases with Review of Literature. CODS J Dent 2016;8(2):121-126.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Kharidi L Vandana, Jing Y Hey, How Z Yuan, Hoovinalli P Vivek, Nazam Lakhani

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Interdental Aids among Dental and Medical Malaysian Students in Davangere District, Karnataka, India

[Year:2016] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:2] [Pages:67] [Pages No:91-99][No of Hits : 188]


ABSTRACT

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding interdental aids in students of Malaysian origin pursuing their education in India.

Materials and methods: The subjects comprising the population of this study were dental and medical Malaysian students residing at Davangere. This questionnaire included 46 items designed to evaluate KAP among dental and medical students regarding the interdental aids’ use and their oral health practices. Data analysis was performed using chi-square test, mean age ± standard deviation, and percentage.

Results: This study included 232 subjects. Percentages and analysis of correct responses according to Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) and Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) students were determined. The knowledge-based “Yes” responses were highest in dental students, followed by medical students.

Conclusion: The KAP of interdental aids of BDS students were better than those of MBBS students. The dental students provided significantly higher correct responses pertaining to interdental aids.

Keywords: Attitude, Interdental aids, Knowledge, Practice, Student population.

How to cite this article: Vandana KL, Hey JY, Yuan HZ, Vivek HP, Lakhani N. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Interdental Aids among Dental and Medical Malaysian Students in Davangere District, Karnataka, India. CODS J Dent 2016;8(2):91-99.

Source of support: Nil

Conflicts of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Mala R Manohar, Gajendra Bhansali

Evaluation of Force Decay of Elastomeric Ligatures in Simulated Oral Environment.

[Year:2016] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:2] [Pages:67] [Pages No:74-77][No of Hits : 180]


ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim is to assess the amount of force decay of the elastomeric ligatures at a constant distance at different time intervals in a simulated oral environment.

Materials and methods: The elastomeric ligatures were obtained from 3M Unitek. Totally, 100 elastomeric ligatures obtained were stretched to twice their outer diameter to study the force degradation pattern under static conditions over a period of 6 weeks in a simulated oral environment. The values obtained were statistically analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Results: Elastomeric ligatures exhibited significantly high initial force levels. There was a rapid force loss for all the ligatures after day 1, followed by week 1. However, they exerted more consistent force levels in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th weeks, exhibiting a minimal force decay of 6% in 2nd to 4th weeks.

Conclusion: Elastomeric ligatures exert clinically significant force levels over a period of 4 weeks necessary for tooth movement. A monthly activation schedule is recommended.

Keywords: Decay, Elastomeric ligatures, Force.

How to cite this article: Manohar MR, Bhansali G. Evaluation of Force Decay of Elastomeric Ligatures in Simulated Oral Environment. CODS J Dent 2016;8(2):74-77.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
R Ambika Kumari, Madhudi S Vishwas

To compare the Incidence of Dentinal Cracks after Instrumentation with Rotary, Reciprocating Twisted File Adaptive System

[Year:2016] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:2] [Pages:67] [Pages No:100-103][No of Hits : 179]


ABSTRACT

Aim: To compare the incidence of dentinal cracks after instrumentation with rotary, reciprocating Twisted File Adaptive (TFA) system using stereomicroscope.

Materials and methods: Forty single-rooted human teeth with mature apices were collected. Ten teeth were left as the control group and 30 teeth were divided into three groups: group I— ProTaper Next file, group II—WaveOne file, and group III—TFA. For standardization, apical enlargement of all teeth was done till 25 tip size. WaveOne file—size of 0.25/0.08; ProTaper Next— Sx, X1 (17/0.4), and X2 (25/0.06) TFA—ML1 (20/O.04), ML2 (25/0.06). Canals were irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl and saline. All the roots were horizontally sectioned at 3, 6, and 9 mm from the apex with a low-speed disk under water spray. The slices were viewed under stereomicroscope at 25× magnification.

Results: There was no statistically significant difference among the three file systems. Overall, ProTaper Next produced the most complete microcracks and WaveOne produced incomplete microcracks. The TFA system caused less root microcracks than the other groups.

Conclusion: Under the study limitations, there was no significant difference among the three file systems. The TFA system caused less root microcracks than the ProTaper Next and WaveOne groups.

Keywords: ProTaper Next, Twisted file adaptive, WaveOne.

How to cite this article: Kumari RA, Vishwas MS. To compare the Incidence of Dentinal Cracks after Instrumentation with Rotary, Reciprocating Twisted File Adaptive System. CODS J Dent 2016;8(2):100-103.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Editorial
KL Vandana, NB Nagaveni

Power of Publication

[Year:2016] [Month:July-December] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:2] [Pages:67] [Pages No:v][No of Hits : 146]


ABSTRACT

In Europe, Denis de Sallo published the earliest academic journal, Journal des savants. The content of this journal included church history, legal reports, and obituaries of famous men.1 The first issue appeared as a 12-page pamphlet on Monday,2 January 5, 1665.3



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